The chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) from ten Peruvian Piper species (Piper coruscans, Pc; P. tuberculatum, Pt; P. casapiense, Pcs; P. obliquum, Po; P. dumosum, Pd; P. anonifolium, Pa; P. reticulatum, Pr; P. soledadense, Ps; P. sancti-felicis, Psf and P. mituense, Pm) has been studied, along with their antifungal and phytotoxic activities. These EOs contained β-bisabolene/nerolidol (Pc), β-bisabolene/δ-cadinene/caryophyllene (Pt), caryophyllene oxide (Pcs), bicyclogermacrene/10-epi-Elemol (Po), bicyclogermacrene/germacrene-D/apiol (Pd), caryophyllene/germacrene-D (Pa), germacrene-D (Pr), limonene/apiol (Ps), apiol (Psf), and apiol/bicyclogermacrene (Pm) as major components, and some are described here for the first time (Ps, Pcs, Pm). A composition-based dendrogram of these Piper species showed four major groups (G1: Pc and Pt, G2: Pcs, Po, Pd, Pa, and Pr, G3: Ps, and G4: Psf and Pm). The spore germination effects (Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, and Alternaria alternate) and phytotoxicity (Lolium perenne and Lactuca sativa) of these EOs were studied. Most of these Piper essential oils showed important activity against phytopathogenic fungi (except G1), especially against B. cinerea. Similarly, most of the essential oils were phytotoxic against L. perenne (except G1), with P. sancti-felicis (G4), P. casapiense (G2), and P. reticulatum (G2) being the most effective. Caryophyllene oxide, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene, limonene, α-humulene, and apiol were evaluated against B. cinerea, with the most effective compounds being β-pinene, apiol, and limonene. This work demonstrates the species-dependent potential of essential oils from Peruvian Piper species as fungicidal and herbicidal agents.