The plant. The aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.) is an Amazonian palm in the process of domestication to be cultivated as a dwarf form. In Peruvian Amazonia, it has a major impact on the economic, social and ecological systems. Fruit are sold and take part in the economy of Peruvian Amazonia. The insects. In this survey, the authors present 18 species of insect pests observed in eight different localities in the surroundings of the city of Iquitos (Loreto, Peru) between 2000 and 2003. Among those species, four develop in the pulp of the fruit, two are borers of the rachillae, one is a borer of the trunk and the petioles of the young leaves, two species bore the rachillae and floral buds, one develops in buds of female flowers and another damages the base of the roots; eight of those species are considered as the most important pests: Eupalamides cyparissias Fab., Antiteuches kerzhneri Rider, Stenoma sp., Clinodiplosis sp., an unidentified species of Cecidomyiidae, Tyrannion sp. and two unidentified species of Curculionidae. Discussion. The cultivation of the dwarf aguaje is a good alternative to the cutting of the native palms to harvest the fruit, but the cultivated palms are damaged by insects. The planters must learn to know those pests to control them. The biology and the ecology of the new pests are currently being studied.