Background. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is responsible for tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1-associated leukemia/lymphoma. The infection is endemic in some areas of Peru, but its prevalence in the Peruvian Amazon is not well established. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 infection in pregnant women in the Peruvian Amazon. Moreover, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of HTLV infection in Peru. (2) Methods. This is a prospective cross-sectional study involving pregnant women attending health centers in the city of Iquitos, Peru, in May and June 2019. The presence of antibodies against HTLV-1 was assessed using ELISA (HTLV I + II ELISA recombinant v.4.0, Wiener lab, Rosario, Argentina). Positive cases were confirmed by Western Blot and HTLV-1 proviral load. (3) Results. The study included 300 pregnant women with a mean age of 26 years (standard deviation [SD] 6.4). Five patients were diagnosed with HTLV-1 infection (prevalence 1.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7% to 3.8%). Pregnant women with HTLV-1 infection were discretely younger (mean age 22.6 [SD 22.6] vs 26.8 [SD 6.3]; p = 0.128). None of the five women had been transfused, and all were asymptomatic. Two (40%) also had a positive serology for Strongy-loides, but larvae were not detected in any of the parasitological stool studies. The systematic review component identified 40 studies, which showed that the prevalence of HTLV infection in the general population was 2.9% (95% CI 1.2% to 5.3%) and in women of childbearing age, 2.5% (95% CI 1.2% to 4.0%). (4) Conclusion. The prevalence of HTLV-1 in the Peruvian Amazon basin is about 1.7%, indicating an endemic presence. Screening for HTLV-1 in prenatal care is warranted.